Energy Recovery from Waste

Razaul Haque Rasham, Id: 201001049, Department of EEE, Green University of Bangladesh

Introduction: Energy recovery from waste, also known as the process that involves generating electricity or heat by treating and processing various types of materials.This approach helps to mitigate the environmental impact of waste disposal while also providing a potential source of renewable energy.

Energy Source Plan:

Why do we recover energy from waste?

Because the technology comes in role in mitigating the problems, like as

1. Crisis of energy

2. Increasing waste material

3. Waste Impacts

4. Population

Population Increase from 2000 - 2023:

2000-23, from the population of Bangladesh has grown at a rate of 1.50% making Bangladesh densely populated. Cities have become densely populated. Especially in Dhaka, Bangladesh, the population is increasing day by day. The main reason is that everyone is moving towards the capital for employment. As a result of which various types of pollution are occurring, and then day by day people are suffering from various diseases due to environmental disaster in Dhaka City.

Waste Increase from 2000-2023:

During 2000 - 2023, it is reasonable to assume that the percentage of waste generation will increase enormously due to population growth, urbanization and industrialization in Bangladesh. Bangladesh faces significant challenges in its waste management due to inadequate infrastructure and limited resources. Rapid urbanization has increased waste generation, especially in large cities such as Dhaka, Chittagong and Khulna .Growth of industries, commercial establishments and population density further contribute to the problem. In recent years, the Government of Bangladesh has recognized the importance of waste management and has taken steps to improve the situation. Efforts have been made to establish waste management systems, promote recycling and composting and raise awareness about proper waste disposal. Additionally initiatives have been launched to reduce single use plastics and promote sustainable practces.The mayors of North City and Dhaka South City has taken considerable intiatives to produce electricity from garbage.

Impacts of waste on Earth:

Waste has numerous impacts on Earth effecting both the environment and human health. Here are some of the key impacts of waste.

Pollution: Improper disposal of waste leads to pollution of various environments all components. For example when organic waste decomposes in landfills, it produces methane a potent green house gas contributing to climate change. Dumping of hazardous waste sources can contaminate soil and water source, posing risks to ecosystem and human health.

Land degradation: Landfills occupy large areas of land, causing degradation and loss of valuable habitats. Waste disposal sites can leak pollutants into the soil potentially contaminating ground water supplies. This can have long lasting negative effects on biodiversity and ecosystems.

Water Polution: Improperly managed waste can contaminate water bodies, including rivers, lakes and oceans. Chemical and toxins from waste can leach into water sources endangering aquatic life and compromising water quality .This pollution affects both maine ecosystems and the availability of safe drinking water for human.

Air Pollution: Burning of waste particularly in open air or uncontrolled in cineration process releases harmfull pollutants into the air .These pollutants include green house gases toxic chemicals and particulate matter contributing to air pollution and impacting both human health and the climate.

Health Risks: Improper waste management can lead to various health hazards .Exposure to hazardous waste can cause respiratory problems, skin diseases, birth defects and other serious health issues. Waste related pollution, such as contaminated water or air can also lead to the spread of diseases and illnesses.

Impact on wildlife: Improperly disposed waste particularly plastics can harm wildlife through ingestion or entanglement. Animals may mistake plastic items for food, leading to internal injuries for or even death. Marine animals are particularly vulnerable to plastic pollution in the oceans with numerous cases of entangled marine life and ingestion of microplastics

So addressing the impacts of waste requires a comprehensive approach including waste reduction, recycling, proper disposal and the adoption of sustainable practices throughout the life cycle of products.

Waste Matrial: Some type of Materials

1. Tires, Medical waste, Auto residue, Appliances, Paints, Coal Fines

2. Oil Waste, Old Furniture, Industrial sludge, Plastics, Other Material.

Waste to Electricity Generation Process:

Waste Collection: Municipal Solid waste or other types of waste, Such as agricultural waste, industrial waste or sewage sludge are collected and transported to a waste treadment facility.

Waste Sorting: Upon arrival at the facility, the waste is sorted to remove recyclable material; hazardous waste and non-combustible items.Recyclables are sent for recycling, while hazardous waste is disposed of separately.

Waste Preparation: The remaining waste is shredded or processed to achive a consistent particle size which optimizes the combustion process.

Combustion: The waste is then subjected to high temperature treatment through either combustion. Then choice between these methods depends on the type and composition of the waste. In the process waste is burned in a combustion chamber Generating heat .The heat is used to produce high –pressure steam, which drives a turbine connected to a generator, thereby producing electricity.

Energy Recovery: The heat produced during combustion can be utilized for other purposes, such as hot water heating or industrial processes, increasing overall energy efficiency.

Emission Control: To minimize environmental impact, waste energy plants employ various emission control technologies including scrubbers, filters and catalytic converters to remove pollutants such as particulate matter sulfur dioxide, NO2 and heavy metals from the exhaust gases.

Ash Disposal: After the combustion process the remaining ash, which is mostly inorganic and non-combustible is collected and disposed of in a controlled manner often in designated landfills.

Local Advantages: Reduces costs and risks associated with landfills.

1. Additional source of revenue.

2. Stimulates your local economy

3. Creates job, money stays at home

4. Reduces petroleum dependence

5. Helps meet alternative fuel mandates.

Environment advantages: This process does not generate residual waste, thereby eliminating the need for new landfills. Ground water the risk of contaminated ground water is eliminated. Air and water emissions are below EPA standards. The energy produced by the process is recovered from discarded materials.

Conclusion: If a country generates electricity by using these technologies then it’s one of the best economical solutions. Seen after all the problems around the world, work will start on this. The only way to produce power from waste efficiency is to use combined cycle gas steam turbine. The technology of generating electricity is well to show the environment clean.



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